Activation Profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–Specific CD4+ T Cells Reflects Disease  

The activation profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ T cells is a critical determinant of disease outcome in tuberculosis (TB), irrespective of the individual's HIV status. Recent studies have revealed that the activation state of these CD4+ T cells reflects the disease activity in TB patients.

 In individuals co-infected with HIV, where TB manifests more aggressively, there is a distinct activation profile characterized by elevated expression of activation markers such as CD38 and HLA-DR on Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells. 

Conversely, in HIV-uninfected individuals with TB, the activation profile of Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells is less pronounced. This suggests that the immune response to Mtb is influenced by the underlying HIV infection status, with implications for disease progression and treatment outcomes. 

--> Understanding the activation profile of Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells could lead to the development of tailored immunotherapies for TB, particularly in the context of HIV co-infection, to improve patient outcomes.

Comparison of the activation profile of IFN-g1